Friday, June 26, 2015

Random Musing Before Shabbat - Chukat 5775 - Wanting To See More Than The View From the Mountaintop (Redux and Revised 5759)

I first wrote this one 16 years ago. I thought it was time to revisit it.

Chukat 5775 (Redux and Revised 5759)

Wanting To See More Than The View From the Mountaintop

Perfect faith is a difficult thing. Perfect trust even more so. So it is only natural for human beings to slip up in this area. Moshe Rabbeinu was no exception. Whether from anger, lack or trust, impatience, lack of faith, or a well-intentioned but misplaced desire to help things alone, Moshe struck the rock.

What a powerful metaphor! How often have we become so frustrated with people, even our own children, that the urge to use force rather than verbal persuasion overcomes us. While this is not the time to debate the merits of child-rearing and forms of punishment, the tale of the waters at Meribah is a cautionary one, and should not be ignored as we seek to live our lives in accord with the ways of our G”d.

Perhaps Moshe was acting out of experience. Like him, we too have all learned that sometimes trying to just coax or verbally persuade someone (for example, a determined terrorist) won't always work. And so we resort to force. Even G”d recognizes this-after all, we weren't told to try and talk the native Canaanites into moving out of the way and letting Israel settle in the promised land.

But we are reaching conclusions before studying the problem. The issue is not whether force is sometimes necessary, but rather that we be sure to first try having faith and seeing if the matter can be resolved without resorting to more than verbal persuasion. This is where Moshe failed, and often where we fail too. (I might humbly suggest that modern-day medinat Israel has this problem as well. I don’t want to unfairly characterize Israel. They have done plenty of talking. They have made peaceful overtures. Yes, they have had times when they tried talking and that failed, so it might be understandable that, like Moses, they start assuming the worst and act in accordance with those assumptions.)  We assume talk won't work and we move right on to force. And Moshe had less of an excuse-for Moshe had been told by G”d to just speak to the rock. We're not getting any direct messages from G”d lately.

Or are we? Is that not the whole point? Torah is that continuous message from G”d. Is that not why we read Torah and study it? Why people like me comment on it, seeking to delve into its meanings and mysteries? The lesson is there. The instruction, the teaching, is there. Have faith. Try talking first. That is, if you want to do more than just see your promised land from the top of a hill on the other side.

Have faith. Try talking first. Maybe you'll cross your Jordan. Otherwise, get yourself a good pair of binoculars. And keep yourself in good's a long walk up that mountain - just to see a vista you'll never see up close.

Herzl said it. If you will it, it is no dream.

This Shabbat think about what it is in your life that you need or want as much as Israel wanted water and Moshe wanted to give it to them. Then have faith, and try persuading your vision into reality with words-perhaps prayer, perhaps song. And if you're not so perfect at it...well, remember-Moshe screwed up and G”d still made water flow from the rock....

Shabbat Shalom,


©2015 (portions ©1999 and 2001)  by Adrian A. Durlester

Other Musings on this parasha:

Chukat5774 - What a Difference a Vowel Makes (Revised from 5767)
Chukat 5773 - Biblical "Jodies"
Chukat 5772 - Your G"d, Our G"d, and the Son of a Whore
Chukat 5767-What A Difference A Vowel Makes
Chukkat 5765-Not Seeing What's Inside
Chukat 5764 - Man of Great Character
Chukat 5762-The Spirit of Miriam
Chukat-Balak 5766 - Community Sing
Chukat Balak 5763-Mi ChaMicah
Chukat-Balak 5760-Holy Cow!

Friday, June 19, 2015

Random Musing Before Shabbat–Korakh 5775–Purposeful Unpleasant Reminder?

History is written by the victors. Yes, it is true that the Torah is not a history book, and never claims to be one. Nevertheless, I suspect the Torah (and indeed the entirety of Jewish sacred text) is subject to this same reality. The Talmud, at least, makes a far greater effort to not bury the voices of the minorities, the losers, those out of favor, etc. The problem, however, is that when you view the Talmud on a meta or global level,  the whole Talmud itself, even with its preserved disagreements and differences of opinion. the Talmud itself is still a product of being written, edited, and redacted by the victors. Who knows which differing opinions didn’t make it in the final cut?

The Egyptians were not afraid to be blatant in re-writing their history in favor of the victors. After their brief flirtation with monolatry under Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten’s enforced switch to worship of the Aten, most traces of this heresy were erased by the subsequent Pharaohs under the guidance of the restored Amunite priests. Little was known of this bit of history until Akhnaten’s city of Akhetaten was discovered at what is now Amarna. DNA evidence connects connects a mummy found at Akhetaten to the mummy of King Tutankhamun, which matches the accepted Egyptian chronologies (the experts still disagree if the mummy that DNA establishes as the father of Tutankhamun is actually that of Akhenaten.)

Scholars have long known not to trust written records, whether they be carved in stone or written on clay tablets, papyri, or animal skin. Tomb and stele inscriptions are propaganda at best, blatant misrepresentations at worst. More mundane records – records of commerce, negotiations, relationships – these are perhaps more revealing about what actual life was like. Perhaps they are more trustworthy in their content. Perhaps not.

The Torah is not a history. It is an etiology, the formative story of a people, and their encounter with, understanding of, and relationship to and with the Divine. Or it is the word of G”d handed down to Moshe at Sinai. It matters little. The story of Korakh’s little rebellion (and even framing it so skews things) is there and we must wrestle with what it tells us and teaches us.

I’m not going to rehash the most typical explanations. You can read and research those for yourself. My most recent understanding of why the story of Korach is there, and what it teaches us is part of the process of reflecting upon what has happened in Charleston-the senseless murder of nine congregants while studying the Bible at their church, in what is, in all probability, a racially-motivated act. It’s not a new understanding for me, but it comes to the fore at this time.

There are all sorts of connections we can make between this tragedy and parashat Korakh. Did Korakh stew in passive-aggressive jealousy, watching Moshe and Aaron (and his sons) get all the glory, only to be driven to an open confrontation by his own frustrations? (Hat tip to Sarah Alevsky.) Did Korakh deal with his own feelings of inadequacy by blaming others (i.e. Moshe and Aharon.) (Hat tip to Tzvi Klugerman – who also pointed out the possible parallel  of how the killer in Charleston sat with those whom he attacked for a while pretending to be one of them before “rebelling” against them.)

Now, let’s harken back to how I started this musing. History is written by the victors. That is the lesson I am gleaning from the story of Korakh’s rebellion today. We’ll never know the real, full story, only the one the Torah reports to us.

Relax. Don’t get your knickers in a knot. This is not an attempt to suggest we need to understand what drove Dylan Ruff to this heinous act. It’s not some sort of anti-news media screed.

I could, but won’t, devote the rest of this musing to redeeming Korakh – to imagining a history in which he isn’t the bad guy he is made out to be, and is more of a scapegoat and is punished as an example to other would be challengers. The makings of that musing, another one of my untold “from the diary of” stories already exist in my head and my notes, and someday, I’ll imagine that “alternate not-history-history” for us. But the tragic event in Charleston has sent me in another direction, one that continues to paint Korakh as the bad example he might not actually have been.

As the discoveries at Amarna prove, no matter how hard the victors try to erase history, the real history can sometimes be outed.

That confederate flag, flying full mast at the South Carolina state capitol (while the state and US flags fly at half-mast) is a clue that the attempt to rewrite history after the Civil War has not be completely successful.

There is a part of me that wants that whole ugly scar of slavery, and the confederate rebellion to be consumed by the earth, as were Korakh and his followers. But the truth is, it hasn’t gone away-just as Korakh’s rebellion hasn’t gone away. Wouldn’t the simplest solution been to have written Korakh’s rebellion out of the Torah entirely? The “victors” probably had the ability to do just that. They didn’t. Is the story of Korakh’s rebellion there as a cautionary tale against rebelling against G”d and G”d’s anointed leaders (and the hereditary priesthood,) or is it a cautionary tale to remind us that the seeds of discontent can never be entirely eradicated, and we must be ever vigilant to seek them out and confront them when necessary. That rebel flag is serving the same purpose as the inclusion of the story of the rebellion of Korakh – a reminder that we must be ever vigilant – that we can’t ever fully erase the evil over which we have been victorious. Korakh and his followers were physically erased, swallowed up into the earth (though Korakh’s actual fate is highly debated – which was the topic of last year’s musing for parashat Korakh entitled “Still a Loose End.”) Scholars like to point out that Korakh is not mentioned at all in the retelling of this story in D’varim 11:16, or in Psalm 106. Only Datan and Abiram are singled out. Curious, isn’t it. Maybe the authors of D’varim and Psalm 106 were trying to rewrite history without Korakh?

Their attempts to do so, if that was their aim, have failed. That we still read this story of Korakh’s rebellion every year is proof. Just as that confederate flag is proof that the war we tried to forget is still not forgotten. Roof alleged murder in cold blood of nine innocent people involved in prayer and study is proof that it is not forgotten. Just as the story of Korakh being in Torah, when it could just as easily have been expunged, tells us that the evil of Korakh abides (though it should be noted his descendants turned into good and righteous people, and there is the strange statement in Numbers 26:11 that the sons of Korakh did not die.)

I have been vocal online about wanting to see that rebel flag taken, even torn down. I’d go there myself and do it if I could. However, we must be careful not to point to the confederate flag and lay all the blame for the continued racism that exists upon only the Civil War, and inly on the states of the confederacy. Responsibility is a slippery thing to determine. Yes, we have come a long way in our society. We fought a horrible war to end slavery (though we could have eliminated it from the very start of the country, damn you, Mssrs Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson – and in fact England beat us to it in 1833! It’s also not entirely clear that the Civil War was fought over slavery or even states’ rights. There were other factors that drove the conflict.) We haven’t come anywhere near far enough. All that has happened lately is proof enough of that. We can point and we can blame, or we can take a long, hard look at ourselves and see how we are all part of the problem. Then, maybe then, we can find a solution.

I am always reminded of that most damning of songs from the musical “1776” entitled “Molasses, to Rum, to Slaves” in which Edward Rutlege, delegate from South Carolina to the Continental Congress sings:

"Whose fortunes are made in the triangle trade/Hail slavery, the New England dream!/Mr. Adams, I give you a toast:/Hail Boston! Hail Charleston!/Who stinketh the most?”

Yes, it was the obstinacy of the southern states that forced Jefferson to remove the offending words from the Declaration of Independence, but Rutlege’s observation, as fictionalized as it might be, was an accurate and true one. The north benefited as much from the slave trade as did the south. The northern states may have sought to abolish slavery, but I don’t think it was their plan to immediately embrace a classless inter-racial society. Racism remains institutionalized in this country, even with Obama in the White House. This racism leads to horrors like Charleston, and the disproportionate killing and mistreatment of blacks in confrontations with the police. We can protest about that rebel flag, but, like the story of Korakh, it serves to remind us to be ever vigilant in the cause of peace and justice. Just erasing the symbols of those we have conquered will not prevent their rising anew.

Imagine historians and archaeologists from a thousand years in the future trying to make sense of a country that apparently had a mixed race leader, but still had large traces of institutionalized racism. We can ban the heinous symbol, the stars and bars, but when archaeologists dig one up in a thousand years, they’ll soon discover the truth we tried to bury and whitewash. Don’t try and hide it, bury it, pretend it never happened. Confront it, and deal with it every time it happens – and it will continue to happen, at least until we reach the Messianic age. That is the lesson I am deriving from Korakh this year.

Your obedient,

A. Durlester
©2015 by Adrian A. Durlester

Other musings on this parasha:

Korach 5774 - Still a Loose End
Korakh 5773 - B'tzelem Anashim (Redux 5764)
Korakh 5772 - B'nei Miri
Korakh 5771 - Supporting Our Priests and Levites
Korakh 5770 (Redux 5758/62) Camp Rebellion
Korakh 5769 - And who Put G"d In Charge (or 2009: A Space Odyssey)
Korakh 5768-If Korakh Had Guns
Korach 5767-Who's Afraid of the Big, Bad, Tabernacle?
Korach 5766 - Investment
Korah 5765 - Stones and Pitchers and Glass Houses
Korach 5764-B'tzelem Anashim
Korach 5763-Taken
Korach 5761-Loose Ends

Friday, June 12, 2015

Random Musing Before Shabbat–Shelakh-L’kha 5775–Cover Up? (Redux 5761)

Here’s one from 2001 that’s worth a revisit. Also note I wrote a follow-up musing to this in 5767

Random Musings Before Shabbat-Shelakh-Lekha 5761


OK, time to write another musing. What's the parasha this week? Oh, yes-Shelakh-Lekha. Spies. What new insight can I find this year? I started to read, but it was late, and my eyelids grew heavy, my mind cloud...

The thought came, unbidden, into my mind, and I was taken aback by it. I couldn't believe I was actually thinking what I was thinking. Could the Torah be involved in a cover-up? Does Shelakh-Lekha contain the Watergate of ancient Jewish history?

G”d instructs Moshe to send out the twelve men to "check out" the territory they were about to occupy as part of G”d's promise. The Torah goes to great length to praise the two "spies" who saw the glass as half-full, Joshua and Caleb. And it depicts with scorn the ten who saw the glass half-empty, and the rabble (which was pretty much everybody else, I think) who accepted their negative reports and complained to Moshe.

So then what happens? G”d says, "OK, I will give you the land as promised...BUT...ain't none of you adults gonna see it except Joshua and Caleb here, because y'all doubted me and whined and complained. So go head the other way and wander around this here desert fer 40 years! That'll teach you varmints!"

Now isn't that convenient? G”d doesn't have to take on the Jebusites, Canaanites, Amalekites (chronology-what chronology-since when is Torah in chronological order?), Whatever-other funky-name-ites, etc. and clear the way for the Israelites to go take over the land promised to them. Nope. Gd gets an extra 40 years before that miracle has to be accomplished. You don't suspect Gd was a little pooped out from the effort over the last few months, do you? All those plagues, splitting the reed sea, manna, quail and other desert miracles, and carving out those tablets and giving the Torah to Moshe and the Israelites, all accompanied by the biggest sound and light show ever. Why, I'll bet G”d hadn't been so worn out since creation! So maybe, just maybe, helping out with getting the Israelites into the land past all those fierce tribes was a bit too much at the time. And on a G”d scale of time, 40 years seems about right for getting a little refreshed before tackling more miracles. Right?

Which means it was all a setup, and maybe even a cover-up. Could G”d possibly reveal to the Israelites that even G”d needs a little time to rest between miracles? Would that portray G”d as limited, weak, vulnerable? Is that a G”d that the Israelites could accept?

(As it happens, I think the answer should be yes-after all, what did G”d do on the 7th day? So we know from the very beginning that "even G”d had to take a nap, and called that nap Shabbat." With thanks to Karen Daniel for that wonderful image from her lullaby "Shabbat Shalom.")

However, as I've said before, G”d often recognizes that human aren't always the sharpest knives in the drawer. Perhaps G”d (or Moshe rabbeinu?) figured that it was too risky to try and help the Israelites fight their way into possession of Canaan while so worn out-for there was a chance many Israelites would be lost in the struggle, and they would begin to doubt G”d even more than they were already inclined to doubt Gd. In fact, the unthinkable might happen, and a pooped-out G”d might be unable to insure victory for the Israelites and they would be driven out-leaving G”d with an un-kept promise.

Lucky for G”d, the Israelites have always been eager to provide a handy excuse for being the cause of their own problems. Sometimes, the Israelites seem like a machine whose only purpose is to provide rationalizations for un-kept promises. As I said before, how "convenient."

"You people been bad! I'm gonna punish y'all. No milk and honey for you!" "Why?" the people respond. "Are you not G”d, slow to anger, abundant in mercy and loving kindness, to the thousandth generation and all that stuff?" "Yep. That's me! But y'all lost faith in me-only Joshua and Caleb here knew I would protect you and insure victory. I can't bring faithless people into the land I promised your ancestors. Nope. Go wonder for forty years" (And, under G”d's breath..."yeah, and give me a little break, you ferkakhte Jews!")

But now we can tell it all. Maybe I can sell the story to The Star, Globe and National Enquirer! Maybe I can even get the Washington Post or NY Times to investigate and expose this cover-up. Joshuagate, we can call it. Ah, I can see the headlines now. "SMOKING GUN DISCOVERED! G”D REALLY ISN'T OMNIPOTENT!" "DECEPTION IN THE DESERT!" "EXTRA! JOSHUA AND CALEB BOUGHT OFF BY G”D WITH TICKET TO PROMISED LAND!" "JEWS WANDER FOR FORTY YEARS WHILE GD TAKES FORTY WINKS!" "DNA TESTS ON SHROUD OF TURIN PROVE MARY WAS NO VIRGIN!" (Whoops, how'd that get in there. Well, you know those crazy tabloids.)

Oh, no. A limited G”d. A deceptive G”d. Oh wait, that's nothing knew. But my faith! I need G”d to be my rock, my redeemer. Help! Help!

.... and then I woke up. Cold sweat drenched my body. Oh horror! What a dream. G”d involved in a cover-up! And me responsible for exposing it. Oy! Well, better get back to reading the parasha so I can write that musing. Where was I? Let's see. Spies. Ten bad reports. Two good reports. The Israelites lose faith, whine and complain. G”d says "ok, no promised land for you. Go wonder for 40 years in the wilderness." But wait a minute. Isn't this G”d, slow to anger, merciful, abundant in loving kindness? Isn't anything possible for G”d?

A thought came, unbidden, into my mind, and I was taken aback by it. I couldn't believe I was actually thinking what I was thinking. Could the Torah be involved in a cover-up? Does Shelakh-Lekha contain the Watergate of ancient Jewish history?...

Shabbat Shalom

©2015 (portions ©2001) by Adrian A. Durlester

Other Musings On This Parasha:

Sh'lakh L'kha 5774 - Do You Spy What I Spy (Redux 5759)
Shelakh L'kha 5773 - They Really Might be Giants (Redux 5764)
Sh'lakh-L'kha 5772- Cover Up (Redux and Revised 5761)
Sh'lakh-L'kha 5771 - Ignorantia Juris Non Excusat
Shelakh L'kha 5769 - One Law
Sh'lakh-L'kha 5767-Cover Up II - G"d's Scarlet Letter?
Sh'lakh L'kha 5766 - Another Missed Opportunity?
Shelakh Lekha 5764-They Might Really Be Giants
Shelakh-Lekha 5762-Minority Report
Shelakh Lekha 5760 and 5765-Anamnesis
Shelakh-Lekha 5759-Do You Spy What I Spy?

Friday, June 5, 2015

Random Musing Before Shabbat – B’ha’alot’kha 5775–Between the Nuns

No, it’s not what you think. It’s between two Hebrew letter nuns. More precisely between the two nun hafukha – two backwards (i.e. reversed) nuns.

׆ וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָֽאָרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה קוּמָה ׀ יְהֹוָה וְיָפֻצוּ אֹֽיְבֶיךָ וְיָנֻסוּ מְשַׂנְאֶיךָ מִפָּנֶֽיךָ: וּבְנֻחֹה יֹאמַר שׁוּבָה יְהֹוָה רִֽבֲבוֹת אַלְפֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: ׆

When the Ark was to set out, Moshe would say: Advance, O L''rd! May Your enemies be scattered, and may Your foes flee before You! And when it halted, he would say: Return, O L''rd, You who are Israel's myriads of thousands. (Numbers 10:35-36, JPS)

The first verse of the text is a familiar one. It’s part of the opening of the service for reading the Torah (though it is less familiar and less often used in Reform settings.)

Now, as I’ve mentioned before, being one of the longest parashiyot (though not the longest,) parashat B’ha’a lot’kha is just chock full of interesting things about which to muse. I commend to you other musings I’ve written on this parasha (see below.) I’ve even written about the nuns surrounding vs. 10:35-36 before, however this time my focus is narrower.

The first thought, upon seeing these reversed nuns, is to wonder if they are an addition by the Masoretes themselves, who, it might be said, did not seem to be shy of editorializing when it came to their work on creating a standard version of the Torah with vowels and trope to guide pronunciation and syntax. That thought, however, is blown out of the water by the fact that these characters are referenced in Talmud. In Tractate Shabbat, 115b and 116a, there is a discussion about when it is necessary to save scrolls and other items of sacred text from a fire or destruction. Though it never refers specifically to an inverted nun character, it does identify a text of 85 letters between two signs – which is an exact match for the text in question. The length of these two verses, 85 letters, becomes a minimum  standard to define how many readable or discernable letters a scroll must contain to be worthy of saving from a fire.

The discussion then states that the “Rabbis” (the Tannaim) taught that these signs (the two inverted nuns) were there to indicate that the text was not in its proper place. “Rabbi” (Yehuda HaNasi) says it’s a separate book. The text goes on to identify the Tanna who disagrees with “Rabbi” as Rabbi Gamliel, and states his position that the signs indicate this text is meant to be placed elsewhere. The Talmud goes on to suggest that since this indicates a missing book, that Numbers itself is two separate books ) before and after 10:35-36) and thus Torah has seven, and not five books. Not an opinion that has held much sway over the millennia.

I don’t have quick access to determine if there any any ancient Torah scrolls (perhaps from Qumran or elsewhere) that testify to the existence of the two inverted nuns, but I’ll take the Talmud at its word. (Perhaps someone out there has knowledge of this?)

There are also 7 inverted nuns in Psalm 107. Rashi mentions another inverted nun that is supposed to be at the end of parashat Noah on the word/place name “Haran.” but there’s no evidence of such a marking existing other than this reference.

The Midrash has another explanation about the two reversed nuns. It suggests that the text between the inverted nuns, verses 35-36, are the utterances of Eldad and Medad. You remember them – they dared utter prophecies in the camp, and tattletales came running to Moses, who rebuked the tattletales by wishing that all of G”d’s people were filled with such prophetic spirit. There are hints of a mystical book of the prophecies of Eldad and Medad.Rabbinical commentaries state that Eldad and Medad spoke about the war between Gog and Magog. Gog is a named plucked from Genesis 10 that figures in the prophecies of Ezekiel. It should be noted that the story of Eldad and Medad occurs in this parasha, but later, in chapter 11, after the reversed nuns. I know we’re not supposed to look at Torah in a linear fashion, but the order does make one question the theory.

For what its worth, there are Greek manuscripts that use what is called a reverse sigma to indicates short pieces of text that are “out of place” and meant to be elsewhere. This gives some support to the Tannaim, but it becomes a who borrowed from whom question.

In my earlier musings on the 10:35-36, I wrote:

I have a different theory - which ignores the nuns completely. I think the whole book of Leviticus wasn't part of the Torah originally. leave out Leviticus, and you can move quite nicely from the end of Exodus to chapter 9 of Numbers (which is the second chapter in B'ha'alot'kha.) You just dispense with all the priestly stuff and you still get a good read and a good story. Not to mention more than enough mitzvot without all the ones we can't do anymore because we don't have a Temple.

Of course, if my (rather ridiculous and wholly unsubstantiated) theory holds true, then perhaps there was something else in the Torah that is now missing, and represented by the text between the two nuns.

So is there a whole missing book? Is this text out of place and belongs later as part of the story of Eldad and Medad in chapter 11? The text is verses 35 and 36 is perfectly consonant with the previous verses. So I’m not sure why anyone would conclude these version belong somewhere else and that’s what the reversed nuns indicate.

I’m puzzled. This text fits in quite nicely, so why is it marked as special? Far greater scholars than I have tried to figure it out, and still we have no consensus. If you believe in Torah miSinai, I suppose it’s not an issue. G”d had some reason for putting those marking there. If you’re more accepting of a human origin for the text of Torah, you have to wonder about these nuns. Did some ancient scribe, unsure if he had made a mistake in copying or transcribing, simply include these to remind him to check it out later, and he simply forgot to erase them (Yes, the ink can be scraped off, effectively erasing things.) Maybe he was interrupted while writing and accidentally started putting in items from a shopping list his wife was giving him which he marked off with the nuns, then later erased and replaced with the proper text but her forgot to erase the signs?  Did he just like this particular text? Was 85 his magic, mystical number that he just happened to notice here?

As I’ve said before, maybe these things that puzzle us are there for exactly that purpose – to puzzle us. G”d’s little joke, or some scribe’s little joke. “Hah! I’ll just add these backwards letters here to freak people out. They’ll go crazy trying to figure out what it means.”

Guess what? It worked.

Shabbat Shalom,

©2015 by Adrian A. Durlester

Other musings on this parasha:

B'ha'alot'kha 5774 - Zechariah's Woo-Woo and Letting Go
B'ha'alot'kha 5773-Still Ecstatic After All These Years
B'ha'alot'kha 5771 - Mandatory Retirement
B'ha'alot'kha 5770 - Ecstasy (Redux 5760)
B'ha'alot'kha 5766 - Vay'hi Binsoa - Movin' Out, Movin' On
B'ha'alot'cha 5765-Unintended Results?
Beha'alotekha 5762 - Redux 5759 - The Kiss of Moshe
Beha'alotekha 5760-Ecstasy